Category: Global Health

제4차 민중건강총회 선언

시민건강연구소는 2018년 11월 15-19일 방글라데시 사바르(Savar)에서 열린 제4차 민중건강총회에 참석했습니다. 전세계에서 모인 건강권 활동가들은 건강을 위한 투쟁이 더 공평하고 정의롭고 배려하는 세상을 향한 투쟁임을 결의했습니다.

연구소가 번역한 제4차 민중건강총회 선언을 확인해보세요.

 

 

 

Abortion ban Overturned in the Constitutional Court

Today, on April 11th 2019, abortion ban in South Korea has been ruled unconstitutional.
This is a historical victory for many Korean people, especially women, who has been fighting vigorously for decriminalization of abortion and women’s reproductive right.

The court ordered that the existing law should be revised by the end of 2020.

 

Constitutional Court says that abortion ban must end (Image from Womenlink Korea)

Joint Action for Reproductive Justice in South Korea, who played critical role in struggle for decriminalizing abortion, declared that we will never go back to the oppressive past, and requested administration and the legislature to ensure the sexual and reproductive right for all.

We want to celebrate this as a step forward the women’s health right in South Korea, and  want to share the Korean people’s struggle to abolish the abortion ban with our comrades around the world.

<Article 269 Abolition Performance of the Criminal Law made by 269 Members (2018.9.29)>

 

<Protest for Safe abortion, and women’s health right! (2018.03.30)>

 

<Waiting for Verdict, the Outside the Constitutional Court (2019.04.11)>

 

More information on the Abortion ban and court’s decision can be found on below

BBC News, “South Korea must end abortion ban by 2020, says court”
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-47890065

The Guardian, “South Korean court rules abortion ban must be lifted”
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/apr/11/south-korean-court-rules-abortion-ban-must-be-lifted

TIMES, “For 66 years, Women in South Korea Have Been Fined or Jailed for Having Abortions. That may be about to change”
http://time.com/5567300/south-korea-abortion-ban-ruling/

#Women_health #Sexual_right #Reproductive_right #Abortion #South_Korea

 

[공개모집] 72번째 세계건강총회의 감시자가 되어보세요

#PHM #WHO_Watch #call_for_participation


 

WHO Watch는 PHM의 중요한 활동 중 하나로, 지구적 건강 거버넌스를 민주화하기 위한 이니셔티브입니다. 우리는 지구적 건강 정책결정과 실행을 좌우하는 정보 흐름, 그리고 권력관계를 변화시킴으로써 모두의 건강을 위한 지구적 환경을 만들고자 합니다. 이 이니셔티브는 PHM 뿐만 아니라 South Center, Third World Network 등 여러 국제 조직 및 네트워크들의 연대를 통해 이루어지고 있으며, 우리는 2011년 1월 이래 세계보건기구의 회의를 감시하고 비판적으로 지지하는 활동을 수행해오고 있습니다.  지금까지 100여명의 전세계 시민사회조직에서 발탁된 젊은 활동가들이 WHO Watch 활동에 참여했고, 훨씬 더 많은 사람들이 우리들의 감시 활동을 지원하고 지켜보았습니다.  WHO Watch의 구체적인 역할과 목표는 여기에서(https://www.ghwatch.org/who-watch/about), 그간의 WHO Watch의 활동 내역은 다음에서 확인할 수 있습니다(https://phmovement.org/who-watch/)

PHM은 2019년 5월 14일부터 28일 사이 스위스 제네바에서 열리는 72번째 세계건강총회에 대한 감시를 준비하고 있습니다. 국제건강총회는 연 1회, 국제건강총회 집행이사회 회의는 연 2회 개최됩니다. 72번째 세계건강총회에서는 건강위기, 국제건강규약(2005)의 집행, 유행성 인플루엔자 대응, 소아마비 박멸, 건강 환경, 기후변화, 보건의료영역의 인적자원, 난민과 이주민 건강, 의약품과 백신에 대한 지구적 접근성 문제, 공중보건, 혁신과 지적재산권, 지속가능개발목표 달성, 11번째 국제질병분류법(ICD-11) 개정과 관련된 사안, 규격 미달 및 위변조 의약품에 대한 대응 등을 다룰 예정입니다.

감시자들은 Medicus Mundi International를 통해 세계건강총회 회의에 참석하고 PHM의 논평을 배포하고 우리의 입장을 각 국가의 대표들에게 옹호하며 우리의 성명을 전달할 것입니다. 우리는 제네바에서 감시를 수행할 PHM 활동가들을 찾고 있습니다. 세계건강총회에서 논의되는 사안들에 대해서 더 많은 지식을 얻길 바란다면, 회의 이후에 당신의 국가 또는 지역에서 해당 사안에 대한 옹호 활동에 개입하고 싶다면 우리에게 연락해주시기 바랍니다. 업무의 특성상 업무 강도가 높고 상당한 압박 속에서 진행될 가능성이 높지만, 그러한 가운데 동료 감시자들과 지지를 주고받는 것은 좋은 경험이 될 것입니다. 또한 이사회 개최 일주일 전에 시작되는 사전준비 워크숍을 포함해 총회의 전체 기간동안 참여하는 것이 필수적입니다. 따라서 감시자는 5월 13일 월요일 도착해 5월 28일에 제네바를 떠날 수 있어야 합니다.

국제적 건강 거버넌스의 정치에 관심이 있다면, 우리의 운동이 UN의 의결과정에 미치는 영향에 대해 이해한다면, 사전준비워크샵은 매우 흥미로울 것입니다. 사전준비 워크샵은 5월 14일부터 18일 사이 열릴 예정입니다.

72번째 세계건강총회에 참여할 의향이 있다면 PHM Global 안내 페이지에 첨부된 양식을 작성하여 주십시오. 2019년 2월 28일까지 신청해주시기 바랍니다.

72번째 세계건강총회 참석 안내(PHM Global)


 

People’s Health Movement global on the human rights violations in Nicaragua

니카라과에서 민주화 투쟁에 대한 폭력적인 탄압이 이루어지고 있습니다.

#Nicaragua #Human_right_violation #PHM #PHM_Korea

PHM이 니카라과의 인권침해에 대한 성명(본문 링크)을 발표했습니다.
PHM은 정부보건자문서비스센터(Center for Information and Health Advisory Services, CISAS)의 등록을 취소하고 인권운동을 이끌고 있는 아나 퀴로스 비케즈 소장을 강제 추방한 니카라과 정부의 조치를 규탄한다. 1983년 설립된 CISAS는 니카라과에서 건강, 평화, 정의를 위한 투쟁에서 역사적인 역할을 해 왔다.

PHM은 아나 퀴로스 비케즈의 시민권 복권을 요구하는 PHM 중남미 지부의 요구를 전적으로 지지한다.

PHM은 연금 개혁과 인권 유린에 반대하는 대중의 선언에 대한 니카라과 정부의 폭력적 탄압에 깊은 우려를 표한다.

PHM은 더 나은 보건의료와 건강의 사회적 결정요인을 위한 행동, 건강 형평성을 위해 일하는 시민사회 운동가들의 세계적 네트워크이다. PHM은 중남미 대부분 나라를 포함해 전 세계 80개 이상 국가에서 활동하고 있다. PHM은 전 세계 수천 명의 건강 운동가들이 CISAS와 아나 퀴로즈 비케즈, 그리고 CISAS와 관련된 다른 동료들과 연대해주기를 요청한다.

People’s Health Movement Global Steering Council

Alternative Astana Statement

일차보건의료에 대한 시민사회의 대안 아스타나 성명

 

2018.10.24. People’s Health Movement

(http://phmovement.org/alternative-civil-society-astana-declaration-on-primary-health-care/?fbclid=IwAR1Oyjp9WEcPiBzLVLnH399z-2pk5YwL3KJN4N7iSCulmwUXq14OCn_xuH4)

 

 

공익을 추구하는 시민사회와 사회운동의 회원이며 일차보건의료에 대한 국제 컨퍼런스에 참여하고 있는 일원으로 우리는 모두의 건강과 안녕을 추구함으로써 건강 형평성을 달성하고자 하는 일차보건의료에 대한 우리의 헌신을 다시 확인한다. 우리는 다음과 같은 세상을 상상한다.

 

  • 사람들의 건강을 중요하게 여기고 이를 보호하며 증진하는 사회와 환경
  • 모든 곳에서 모두가 접근 가능하고 지불 가능하며 수용할 수 있는 보건의료서비스
  • 사람들의 존엄을 지키고 존중하는 양질의 보건의료서비스
  • 지역사회가 통제력을 행사할 수 있는 보건의료체계

 

아나스타 선언은 이런 목적들을 공유하지만 여기서 일차보건의료는 보편적 건강보장(Universal Health Coverage, UHC)의 주춧돌, 혹은 기반으로 도구화 되어 있다. 일차보건의료는 보다 넓은 의미를 포괄한다. 많은 나라에서 보편적 건강보장은 민간의료보험회사에 의해 시행되고 있으며 이는 건강형평성을 악화하고 있다. 아스타나 선언은 “건강 결과에서 격차와 건강 불평등이 지속된다는 사실이 윤리적, 정치적, 사회적, 경제적으로 수용 불가능하다”고 공식적으로 인식하지만 일부 지역에서 건강 수준이 오히려 나빠지고 있음을 의식하지 않는다. 선언은 만성질환의 위험 요인뿐만 아니라 “전쟁, 폭력, 유행병, 자연 재해, 기후 변화, 극단적 기후, 다른 환경적 요인”들로 인한 조기사망에 대해 인정하고 있지만 이들의 원인이 되는 근본적인 경제적 정치적 원인과 전세계적으로 확대되고 있는 불평등에 대해 명시하지 않는다. 이러한 이유로 민중건강운동을 비롯한 진보적 시민사회조직과 사회운동단체인 우리들은 아나스타 선언에 대한 대안 성명을 제안해야 할 필요가 있음을 표명한다.

세계보건기구 헌장에 명시된 바와 같이, 가능한 최고의 건강을 달성하는 것은 모든 인간의 기본 권리이다. 40년 전, 1978년 세계의 지도자들은 알마아타 선언에서 일차보건의료를 통해 모든 사람들의 건강을 위해 헌신할 것을 약속했다. 우리 서명자들은 전 세계 모든 사람들의 건강을 보호하고 증진하기 위해 모든 국제 기구와 정부, 모든 보건의료와 개발 종사자들, 그리고 세계 공동체가 긴급한 행동에 나설 필요가 있음을 밝히고, 다음과 같이 선언한다.

 

  1. 우리는 단지 질병이 부재한 상태가 아닌 완전한 신체적, 정신적, 사회적, 문화적, 생태적으로 온존한 상태를 의미하는 건강이 인간의 근본적 권리이며, 달성할 수 있는 최상의 건강 수준을 달성하는 것이 세계적으로 가장 중요한 사회적 목표 중 하나임을 강력하게 재확인한다. 각국 정부는 이 목표를 실현해야 할 책임을 지며, 이를 위해서는 건강 영역 외에도 다수의 사회적 경제적 부문의 조치가 필요하다. 사람들의 건강은 번영하는 삶과 건강하고 보호받는 자연 환경을 촉진하는 사회와 일하고 살아가는 조건에 달려있다.
  2. 국가 간, 국가 내에서뿐만 아니라 전세계적으로 존재하고, 점차 벌어지고 있는 극단적 경제적 불평등과 건강 불평등은 정치적, 사회적, 경제적, 윤리적으로 받아들일 수 없으며 이는 환경 파괴와 분쟁의 근원이기에 모든 국가에게 공통의 문제이다.
  3. 공정한 경제적, 사회적 발전을 위해서는 현재 지배적인 신자유주의 패러다임을 거부하고 국제적, 국가적으로 지속가능하고 평등한 경제 질서를 수립해야 한다. 달성가능한 모두의 건강을 성취하고 국가 간, 국가 내 건강 격차를 줄이기 위해 무엇보다도 국제적 금융 흐름과 조세피난처와 조세회피를 규제하는 것이 시급하며, 이와 더불어 젠더, 신분, 인종, 장애, 성적 지향으로 인한 불평등을 해소하기 위한 인식과 실천이 중요하다. 모든 사람의 건강과 안녕을 증진, 보호하는 것은 세계 평화와 환경 보호에 기여하는 지속가능하고 평등한 사회적 경제적 개발을 가능하게 할 것이다.
  4. 사람들은 각자의 건강을 돌보기 위한 계획과 집행에 개별적으로 그리고 집합적으로 참여할 수 있는 기회를 제공받아야 한다. 이 참여는 연령, 젠더, 민족, 사회경제적 지위를 고려해야 하며, 적절한 경우 디지털 기술을 활용해야 한다.
  5. 정부는 유엔인권선언에 명시된 다른 권리들과 함께 국민의 건강권을 실현할 책임이 있다. 앞으로 수십년 간 정부, 국제기구, 전세계 공동체는 전 세계 모든 사람들이 사회적, 경제적으로 번성하는 삶을 살 수 있도록 적정한 수준의 건강을 달성하는 것을 중요한 사회적 목표로 삼아야 한다. 유엔의 지속가능한 발전목표(Sustainable Developmental Goals, SDGs)는 국제적, 국가적으로 평등하고 지속가능한 경제 질서를 확립하는 데에 기여함으로써 이런 목표를 달성하는 데에 중요한 역할을 할 수 있다. 일차보건의료는 사회정의를 추구하는 개발의 한 부분으로 모두의 건강을 성취하기 위한 열쇠이며, 현재의 지식, 기술, 자원을 고려한다면 이는 충분히 가능하다.
  6. 일차보건의료를 실현하기 위해서는 효과적이고 책무성 있는 국제적 거버넌스가 필요하다. 여기에는 건강과 건강에 이로운 여러 서비스들의 재원 조달을 위해 모든 개인과 기업이 공평하게 세금을 납부하게 하기 위한 효과적인 과세 수단이 포함된다.
  7. 2018년 현재, 지구 상의 생명체들은 가속되는 기후변화로 인해 위협받고 있다. 따라서 일차보건의료 접근은 우리 모두가 국민 국가의 시민일 뿐만 아니라 이 행성의 시민임을 제안하는 지구 헌장(Earth Charter, 2000)을 지지해야 한다. 이는 자연환경과 지구 상의 다른 종들과 조화롭게 살아가며 이를 보호하는 것과, 인간 사회 안에서 형평과 사회 정의의 상호연관을 인식하는 것이다. 지구 헌장의 모든 핵심적 원칙들은 일차보건의료 운동과 공유된다.
  8. 일차보건의료는 과학적으로 건전하며 사회적으로 받아들일 수 있는 방법과 기술을 토대로 하는 필수 보건의료이며, 지역사회의 모든 개인과 가족들이 자기결정의 원리에 따라 이에 충분히 참여하고 보편적으로 접근가능해야 한다. 일차보건의료는 국가의 보건의료체계의 중심 기능이자 주요 초점인 동시에 전반적인 사회적 경제적 발전의 핵심적인 부분이다. 일차보건의료는 가구와 지역사회 수준에서 첫 번째 단계의 돌봄을 강조하고, 사람들이 살고 일하는 장소와 최대한 가까운 곳에서 포괄적 보건의료서비스를 지향하며, 다른 수준의 보건의료서비스 및 돌봄과 통합되어야 한다.
  9. 일차보건의료는;
    • 한 국가와 국가 내 공동체들의 경제적 조건과 사회문화적, 정치적 속성을 반영하며 관련된 사회적, 생의학적, 보건의료체계 연구와 공중보건에 대한 경험들을 적용하는 데에 기초한다.
    • 공동체의 주요 건강 문제를 다루며 이를 위한 건강증진, 예방, 치료, 재활, 완화 서비스를 제공한다
    • 최소한 다음의 내용들을 포함한다
      • 주요 건강 문제에 대한 건강 교육과 이를 예방, 통제하는 방법
      • 적절한 영양과 건강한 식품 공급 촉진
      • 기본 위생과 안전한 물의 적절한 공급
      • 모성 건강과 피임, 임신중절을 포함하는 성과 재생산 건강 서비스
      • 젠더기반폭력에 대한 보건의료서비스와 예방
      • 아동 건강 돌봄
      • 주요 감염 질환에 대한 백신접종
      • 지역 내 풍토성 질환 예방 통제
      • 정신질환을 포함한 비전염성 질환 예방 통제
      • 흔한 질병과 손상에 대한 적절한 치료
      • 장애인의 필요를 충족하기 위한 보건의료서비스
      • 필수 의약품 공급
    • 보건 부문 외에도 국가 및 지역사회 개발의 모든 관련 부문, 특히 농업, 무역, 식품, 산업, 교육, 주택, 공공 인프라, 통신과 정보 기술 등과 관련이 있으며 이런 모든 부문의 협력을 필요로 한다.
    • 일차보건의료의 계획, 조직, 운영, 관리에 대한 개인과 공동체의 최대한의 자율성과 참여를 요구, 촉진하고 지역, 국가, 및 기타 가용 자원을 최대한 활용하며 이를 위해 적절한 교육을 통해 지역사회의 참여 능력을 개발한다.
    • 통합되고 기능적이며 상호보완적인 의뢰체계를 통해 지속되어야 하며 이는 모두를 위한 포괄적 보건의료서비스의 점진적 개선을 이끌어 내고 가장 필요한 이들에게 우선순위를 두어야 한다.
    • 지역과 상위 의뢰 수준에서 의사, 간호사, 조산사, 중간의료인력, 마을건강요원 등 보건의료인력, 필요한 경우 적절하게 사회적으로 기술적으로 훈련받은 전통의료인력에 의해 실행되지며 팀으로 일하면서 지역사회의 건강 필요에 대응한다. 모든 정부는 다른 부문과 협력 하에 포괄적 국가 보건의료체계의 일부로 일차보건의료를 강화하고 지속하기 위한 국가 정책, 전략, 실행 계획을 수립해야 한다. 이를 위해서는 정치적 의지를 발휘하고 국가의 자원을 동원하며 외부 자원을 합리적으로 사용할 필요가 있다.
  10. 기술은 건강을 향상하는 데에 기여하지만 새로운 기술들이 지혜롭게 사용될 수 있도록 주의가 필요하다;
    • 새로운 바이오기술과 인공지능을 전체 인구집단의 건강과 형평에 기여할 수 있을 가능성 외에도 잠재적으로 해를 끼칠 가능성의 측면에서 검토하고 필요에 따라 규제해야 한다.
    • 특히 민간 부문에서 과도한 기술 적용에 대한 규제가 필요하다. 의료와 산업 농업 부문에서 항생제의 비합리적 남용에서 기인한 항생제 내성 위기가 대표적인 사례이다.
    • 디지털 기술을 활용함으로써 접근성과 서비스 질을 향상할 가능성이 있으나 사회경제적 불평등을 반영하는 디지털 서비스 접근의 기울기를 인식하고 이에 대응하기 위한 전략이 필요하다. 이 기울기를 줄이기 위한 특별한 조치들이 필요하다.
  11. 보편주의적인 것이 당연한 보편적의료보장은 일차보건의료의 핵심 요소이며 이는 사회 연대와 대부분의 서비스를 공공기관을 통해 공급하는 통합된 공공자금지원체계에 기반하여 구축되어야 한다.
  12. 한 국가 사람들의 건강을 보호, 성취하는 것이 모든 다른 나라에 직접적으로 영향을 미치고 혜택을 주게 되므로 원조 프로그램을 포함해 모든 개발 원조는 국가 공중보건의료체계를 강화하고 건강의 사회적, 환경적, 생태학적 요인들을 다루어야 한다.
  13. 보건의료인력 훈련을 일차보건의료 중심으로 재편하고 보건의료인력들에게 안전하고 공정한 근무 환경을 보장해야 한다. 의료인력의 분배는 대단히 불평등하며 더 많은 의료 인력이 필요한 곳에 더 적은 의료 인력이 배치되고 있다(의료 제공 반비례 법칙, Inverse care law). 자국의 보건의료인력 양성을 늘리고 인력유출국의 훈련 비용 손실을 보상하는 등 국제적, 국가적 정책을 통해 중저소득 국가에서 고소득 국가로 두뇌 유출 문제를 해결해야 한다.
  14. 효과적인 일차보건의료체계 시행으로 인한 건강 향상은 건강에 해로운 상품의 거래와 홍보(예. 초가공식품, 알코올, 담배)나 환경적으로 해로운 채굴 산업 등 건강의 상업적 결정요인에 의해 쉽게 저해될 수 있다. 효과적인 규제를 포함해 세계적, 국가적 정책을 통해 건강의 상업적 결정요인의 해로운 영향을 방지해야 한다.
  15. 세계 모든 사람들이 받아들일 수 있는 건강 수준은 세계의 자원을 더 충분히 잘 사용함으로써 성취할 수 있으며, 현재 이 자원 중 상당 부분이 군비와 군사적 충돌에 사용되고 있다. 독립, 평화, 군비 축소에 대한 진정한 정책은 보다 평화적인 목적을 추구하는 데에 추가적 자원을 투입할 수 있고 자원을 투입하도록 해야 한다. 특히 일차보건의료가 핵심적인 부분을 구성하는 사회적 경제적 개발을 가속하고 이에 필요한 적절한 몫의 자원이 할당되어야 한다.

 

우리는 광범위한 공공 시민사회조직과 사회운동을 대표하여 일차보건의료에 대한 국제 컨퍼런스가 일차보건의료를 발전시키고 시행하기 위한 긴급하고 효과적인 국가적, 국제적 실천에 나설 것을 요구한다. 이는 전 세계적인 요구인 동시에 중저소득 국가에서 특히 중요하며, 이를 위한 기술 협력과 지속가능하고 공정한 경제 질서의 확립을 지향해야 한다. 이를 위해서는 정부, 세계보건기구, 다른 국제 기구들, 다자기구와 양자기구, 비정부기구, 재정 지원 기관, 모든 보건의료인력, 전세계 공동체가 일차보건의료에 대한 국가적, 국제적 약속을 지지하고 특히 중저소득 국가에 대한 기술적 재정적 자원을 늘려나가야 한다. 우리는 이 선언의 내용과 정신에 따라 일차보건의료에 기초한 공공보건의료체계를 강화, 발전, 조달, 유지하기 위해 협력할 것을 촉구한다.

 

 

 

[Reportage] The human toll of an era that uses the impoverished as disposable commodities(hankyoreh)

“Foreign nationals accounted for nine of the 195 people who died without surviving family or friends at Incheon Medical Center between 2001 and 2017. Their deaths offer a glimpse at an era where the world takes advantage of cheap labor by impoverished people. The global migrations of workers, fragmenting of national identity, and relationship between death and a life of poverty are faintly visible in the last marks these people left on the world when they passed away.”

#Globalization #migration #labor

Original Article from https://bit.ly/2HS45St


Migrant workers sacrifice for a society they will never truly become a part of

Migrant workers gather in front of Jongno Tower in Seoul on World Migrant Workers’ Day, Dec. 18, 2003, to commemorate those killed during the government’s forced deportation crackdown that year. At the far left is a photo of Burkhon, an Uzbek man who died in 2003. (by Kim Jin-su, staff photographer)
Foreign nationals accounted for nine of the 195 people who died without surviving family or friends at Incheon Medical Center between 2001 and 2017. Their deaths offer a glimpse at an era where the world takes advantage of cheap labor by impoverished people. The global migrations of workers, fragmenting of national identity, and relationship between death and a life of poverty are faintly visible in the last marks these people left on the world when they passed away. For the first time, the Hankyoreh is giving voices to the people who put food on our tables, operate our factories, and sustain our day-to-day lives – without ever becoming “one of us.”
My name is Burkhon
I, an Uzbek man who died in 2003 at the age of 50, died on the “outside” from the rest of you. Unable to cross over among you while I was alive, I was forced to roam the outside even after I died, unable to come to rest in your city.Do spirits make a sound? A dog was loudly barking off to one corner of the darkening lumber factory in the Songhyeon neighborhood of Incheon’s Dong (East) district. While I was alive, I was always treated with wariness. I was rejected, policed, hunted. Even after I passed away, I flinched and shrank each time the city growled.
I am the abused
The factory boss came out of the container box office to quiet the dog. Fifteen years have passed, but the boss – now 46 – is still younger than I was when I died. That winter [in 2003], I had come to the lumber factory because I did not know where else to go. Having lost my job in a strange city, the only place I could turn was the factory where my nephew worked.
I was driven out when the South Korean government launched a large-scale crackdown [tracking down and expelling unregistered migrant workers during the adoption of an employment permit system in place of the “industry trainee system” that had been criticized as a “slave training system” since its 1993 implementation]. No sooner had they announced that employers would also be punished for the illegal hiring of foreign nationals than the company [not the lumber factory] forced me to pack my bags. Four months after arriving that July on a tourist visa, I had lost my place of residence and become a fugitive.
The boss opened the door to a bathroom fashioned from a container box. Now as old as the number of years since my passing [the lumber factory relocated to its current location a few months after Burkhon’s death], it seemed about to crumble in its old age the way I had crumbled similarly. The factory was still there, but it was not the same. Lumber was sparse in the factory yard. There were no after-hours volumes, no overtime work. I could not see any non-Korean workers; only a few of the Korean workers were older than I was at the time [all 60 years or older].
The hunting dog followed the scent. Whenever I trembled in fear of being hunted down for being an illegal alien, I heard the sound of barking. Sometimes the noise of the city and the muttering of people that surrounded me in this land whose language I did not speak sounded like a wild beast hidden in the forest. I came to South Korea at the age of 50 after giving US$5,000 to a broker in Samarkand [a city in central Uzbekistan]. If I returned without paying back my debt, my family and I would have no present, let alone a future. Carrying my luggage, I visited the factories where my Uzbek friends were working, but I was unable to find any work for myself.
When I returned to this factory a week after they rejected my application for work, my nephew’s friend reminded me of what the factory boss had said: “We can’t use illegal aliens right now. I can’t even let them into the factory dormitory.”
I was not allowed “inside,” and it was so cold “outside.” Even worse, it was frightening. I told my nephew’s friend I would go back to Uzbekistan the next day and then turned to go. The time-worn door to the bathroom creaked every time it moved, as if marked by memories from 15 years ago. There was an acrid smell in the bathroom from the gas emitted by a heater left on to keep the pipes from bursting. Both then and now, the bathroom was too shabby to be someone’s last place on earth.
After ten days of being chased from place to place [2 am on Nov. 25, 2003], I died in this bathroom. My body was found by the factory workers, hanging from a rope I had attached to the bathroom door. A crumpled plane ticket that I had been fidgeting with for several days turned up in my crumpled clothing.
I was the fourth person to kill himself around the time of the crackdown. The other three were already waiting for me in the spirit world. Darka, a 31-year-old Sri Lankan man, threw himself onto the train tracks on Nov. 11 out of despair for no longer being able to send money to cover his ailing mother’s medical bills.Bikku, a 34-year-old Bangladeshi man, hung himself on Nov. 12. Still owing 4 million won (US$3,700) of the 10 million won (US$9,300) loan he had taken out when he came to South Korea with his younger sibling, he decided it would be better to die in South Korea. Andrei, a 37-year-old Russian man, jumped into the sea on a ship bound for Vladivostok that he had been placed aboard after being apprehended in the crackdown.
My poor family could not afford to bring me home. With the help of some Koreans, including Yang Hye-u, then-director of the Korea Migrant Human Rights Center, who had been granted power of attorney by fax, my body was embalmed by students doing a practicum for a degree in mortuary science and loaded in the cargo container of a plane. Ten days into the crackdown, the government announced its “progress”: 1,233 people rounded up and 606 people deported. Two days after my funeral, it launched a second round of the crackdown on Dec. 8.
After coming out of the bathroom, the boss looked up at the red sky. I didn’t die in this bathroom because I resented him for not giving me work. There was just nowhere else where I could die. In the words of the boss, this was a time when “immigration agents were sweeping every factory and rounding up foreigners every day.” After I died, my nephew and his colleagues all left the factory. The boss, who must think of me every time he goes into that bathroom, might even miss that time “when business was going pretty well.” Since I hung myself in the bathroom, I have decayed along with the door, but I’m still unable to go inside the factory.

A bathroom inside the Incheon lumber factory where Burkhon killed himself in 2003. Although 15 years have passed, the appearance remains the same. (by Lee Moon-young, staff reporter)

Am I a person or a thing?
An ambulance took me, a 38-year-old ethnic Korean from China, who died in March 2003, from a factory 2.2km away from the rusted bathroom to an emergency room for respiratory paralysis and hypoxic brain injury. Born in a village of ethnic Koreans in the city of Shenyang, in China’s Liaoning Province, I worked at a factory in the Dohwa neighborhood of the Nam (South) District next to an elevated highway in this city. The company boss cut off contact with me without paying my hospital bills, saying that times were tough. A foreman at the factory ducked responsibility, too, claiming he couldn’t do anything because he hadn’t heard from the boss.
I’m a person, but I was “imported” like a product. And once I lost my utility, I was disregarded like a useless thing. My older brother didn’t have the money to pay for my internment. Since he was illiterate, a friend filled out the form on his behalf, promising to pay the hospital bill later, when he got the money. It wasn’t until a month after I died that I was sent to the crematorium.
I was one of nine foreigners who have died in this city without any next of kin. Foreigners accounted for nine of 195 people who died without any connections at the Incheon Metropolitan City Medical Center between 2001 and 2017.
I had been told that this city that was organized according to the needs of the powerful countries that forced Korea to open up two centuries before was called Incheon. Japan, Qing China, the US, the UK, Germany, Russia and France set up international settlements there.
Now when I die alone in this city, I am either a descendant of those who settled there at that time (two overseas Taiwanese, one Chinese national), a person with a Korean identity who came to the motherland only to be treated as a foreigner (one ethnic Korean in China) or a migrant worker from a poor and weak country (one Uzbek, one Mongolian, one Nepalese, one Burmese and one Ugandan].
Why am I – a person whose manner of death speaks to the hardship of my life – always from “those countries”? Why is it only people from those countries who die as “foreigners without connections” in this city?As of the end of 2016, there were 59,103 foreigners registered as living in Incheon: 25,665 (43.4%) from China, 6,536 (11.0%) from Vietnam, 2,852 (4.8%) from the Philippines, 2,609 (4.4%) from Taiwan, 2,047 (3.4%) from Indonesia, 1,920 (3.2%) from Thailand and 1,010 (1.7%) from Bangladesh. Why am I never from the US (998, 1.6%), Japan (913, 1.5%)or the UK or Canada (272, 0.4%)?Why do they still call me a “foreign son-of-a-bitch” when I take on the hardest labor to keep the city’s factories running? (12,056, or 20.3%, are in Namdong District, the location of Namdong Industrial Park; 11,627, or 19.6% are in Seo District, the location of Geomdan Industrial Park and the lumber center; and 10,933, or 18.4%, are in Bupyeong District, the location of Bupyeong Industrial Park.)
I, a 51-year-old Taiwanese national in the Chinese diaspora, died in 2011 without belonging to anything. Born in the Chinese city of Dalian, my father came to this city in 1939, at the age of 16. When his country was divided between the mainland and the island, he chose the island. His five sons and daughters were all born in South Korea and spent their entire lives there, but we all remained Taiwanese, just like our father. My ancestors had settled in this city as subjects of the treaty signatory (Qing dynasty China) more than two centuries before.With the passage of time, confusion about Chinese nationals, Taiwanese nationals and Chinese in the overseas community, some of whom had retained their original nationality and some who had naturalized, left blind spots in South Korea’s laws and institutions. As the second son, I was the only one of my siblings to complete middle school. The only identity I clung to was my poverty. When I died, the only member of my family who heard the news was my older brother, and he declined to take responsibility for my body. He lived on the streets.
I, a 58-year-old overseas Chinese man with Taiwanese nationality who died in 2015, lived on the streets, too. I died surrounded by a terrible stench. This stench was an intangible wall that divided two worlds. I was taken to a hospital for hypoxic brain injury from the second basement level of the parking garage at a department store in the Gwangyo neighborhood of the Nam (South) District.I was disturbed by the fragrance of mouthwatering food wafting down from the first basement level, while the imported fragrances on the first floor were beautiful enough to conceal even the rank odor of my body. I couldn’t remember why I had gone there – whether because of the hunger or the cold. I spent my life with Korean homeless people around Incheon Munhak Stadium and crawled between two cars parked at the department store to die. The cheers rising from the stadium were so loud, and the laughter filling the department store was so bright. The stench of the street on my body brought scowls to the faces of customers, which confirmed that this was a world I could not enter.
I’m an employee of the world
While I, a 40-year-old Nepalese man who died in 2011, was living on the streets in Seoul, I heard about a free restaurant (the Dandelion Noodle Shop in the Hwasu neighborhood of Dong District) from an old man named Jang and followed him to Incheon. I came to South Korea in the early 1990s to make money. As an industrial trainee, but I came down with a heart condition. After getting sick, I couldn’t find any more work, nor could I return home with a disease instead of money.Every time Koreans were amazed to see this big, dark-skinned Nepalese homeless man, I grew a little bigger, and my skin became a little darker. I was lucky to lie down in a room with the help from the owner of the noodle restaurant before I became as large as a “black dinosaur.” I died “with a slight smile on my face and earphones in my ears one night after I came back from seeing some friends,” in the words of Seo Yeong-nam, owner of Dandelion Noodle Shop.
Instead of being loaded on a plane bound for Nepal, my body was reduced to ashes in this city. I had no home to return to. After I got sick in South Korea, lost my job and couldn’t wire any money, my relatives back home whose livelihood rested on my shoulders scattered in all directions.
I died without being able to escape the yoke of cheap labor. I, a Burmese man who died a violent death in 2013, joined the crew of a South Korean ship at the age of 60. Seven months later, my dead body was brought back to dry land. I, a 28-year-old Mongolian man, died in a traffic accident on the street in front of a vocational school [in 2013] and was sent to my younger sibling who worked in Paju, in Gyeonggi Province.I have been employed in all countries for cheap wages. South Korea, a major destination of migrant workers, has long opened its doors to migrant workers from around the world. My death occurred during that process, and my homeless life was “globalized” on that road. (“Since 2010, the number of foreigners visiting the noodle shop has greatly increased and their nationalities have also become more varied, including Chile, Brazil and India,” said Seo Yeong-nam.)
I have continued to die. Filled with despair over Burkhon’s death, I went to Myeongdong Cathedral with other migrant workers and held a sit-in there for 380 days (Nov. 15, 2003, to Nov. 28, 2004), but there was no end to the dying. I fell to my death when trying to jump to the roof of the next building to escape immigration agents. I died along with Nur Fuad, an Indonesian, when a fire broke out at a foreigner detention center in Yeosu and the staff didn’t open the doors (in total, 10 Chinese, ethnic Koreans, and Uzbeks in 2007 perished in the blaze.)
As I awaited my deportation, I killed myself by shooting myself in the head 33 times with a nail gun (Nguyen Van Thanh, Vietnamese, in 2008). I was asphyxiated while cleaning up pig feces without any safety equipment (four people from Nepal, China and Thailand in 2017), and I killed myself out of despair over a system that kept me from changing jobs without my boss’s consent (Keshav Shrestha, Nepalese, in 2017 – this is one of the most notorious problems with the employment permit system).In the city of Incheon, I worked in all areas of migrant labor. In the words of Kim Ki-dong, former secretary-general of the Korea Migrant Human Rights Center, “Incheon is a microcosm of the migrant situation in South Korea.”In this city, I ploughed the fields (agricultural migrant labor), raised cattle (livestock migrant labor), sailed on ships (shipping crew migrant labor) and worked in factories (manufacturing migrant labor). Without my work, your tables would not be set, your cities would lack amenities and even the reproduction of your families and nation (immigrant spouses) would be in danger. Even though I sustain your daily lives, I’ve never been welcome in your country. There’s always an unyielding line before of my feet over which I’m not allowed to cross.
I’m Burkhon.
Even after becoming a ghost, I’m still trapped outside of you.
By Lee Moon-young, staff reporter

Doctor’s plea: ‘Don’t crack down on foreign TB patients'(TheKoreaTimes)

* Korea has the highest incidence rate of TB among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In 2014, South Korea marked a TB incidence rate of 86 patients per 100,000, seven times higher than the average rate of the developed nations.

* A reporter and the doctor’s narrative being racist enough, but the doctor from  Korean Institute of Tuberculosis’ program claims that treatment of foreign TB patient is necessary and desirable.

#Foreign_patient #Tuberculosis #Korea

Image result for korea tb foreigners


Original Article from: https://bit.ly/2qRES2o
Over 2,000 foreigners are taking advantage of free tuberculosis (TB) treatment, eating away at taxpayers’ money, but cracking down on them is not the answer, a doctor has told The Korea Times.

“If you pursue those freeloaders, they would go underground and run the higher risk of spreading the disease,” Oh Kyung-hyun, head of the state-run Korean Institute of Tuberculosis’ program cooperation department, said. “So treating them at our expense is better for our national health.”

TB is a contagious disease, the treatment of which is 100 percent covered by the government, even if the person does not subscribe to national health insurance.

Korea has the highest rate of TB among the rich OECD member nations.

Foreigners accounted for 6 percent of patients in 2017, 0.5 percent down from the previous year, according to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). They include long-term resident foreigners who pay medical insurance and those on short-term visas who don’t.

The ratio has risen from 2.4 percent in 2011 to 6.54 percent in 2016.

The bulk of newly diagnosed patients are older people, who accounted for 41.9 percent last year, up 2 percent from the previous year.

The KCDC said it is establishing a new TB control plan for 2018 to 2022, targeting vulnerable groups including foreigners and the elderly.

Under the current policy, foreigners on tourist visas do not need to submit a medical certificate to enter the country. They can get free TB treatment in national hospitals.

Those who visit the country for more than 90 days need to pay health insurance for three months period in advance.

“The issue of foreigners getting free treatment needs to be dealt with at a bilateral level between the Korean government and other countries, where the patients come from,” the doctor said.

 

 

South Korea scores symbolic victories in negotiations over KORUS FTA(Hankyoreh)

What does US’s victory about pharmaceutical pricing system mean to Korean people and healthcare system?

Does idea of “free-trade” more important than efficient purchasing of single-payer system to assure medicine access to all?

 

“Another major victory for the US is the agreement to hold additional negotiations to revise South Korea’s pharmaceutical pricing system for innovative medicine from around the world. American pharmaceutical firms have repeatedly complained that the price of medicine is set too low by South Korea’s national health insurance.”

 

#KORUS-FTA #pharmaceutical_pricing #newdrug #medicine #Free_Trade

 

Original Article from: https://goo.gl/BsPBKU

 


 

US receives concessions on automobile import restrictions and prescription drug pricing

South Korean Trade Minister Kim Hyun-chong takes a drink of water during a briefing to discuss the results of the KORUS FTA revision agreements at the Central Government Complex in Seoul on Mar. 26. (by Baek So-ah, staff photographer)

While presenting results of the negotiations to revise the South Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) at the Central Government Complex in Seoul on Mar. 26, South Korean Trade Minister Kim Hyun-chong said that South Korean negotiators had protected the nation’s interests. “We participated in the negotiations more with the aim of defending the national interest than of protecting the KORUS FTA. We gave ground where appropriate while securing our interests [in the agreement],” Kim told reporters.

 

South Korea had found itself at a disadvantage in the negotiations because of the major divide between the two countries from the outset of the negotiations, which was compounded by American tariffs on steel. Despite these circumstances, Kim said, the negotiators managed to protect the South Korean market as best they could.

 

As Kim said, balancing the two sides’ interests was not an easy proposition in the negotiations, which were launched because of the US’s unilateral demand for and objective of “resolving the trade imbalance.” But a close look at the final tally of the negotiations also suggests that South Korea won the symbolic victories, while the US pocketed the practical benefits. South Korea received assurances about securing import quotas for steel and institutional and procedural improvements for investor-state dispute settlements (ISDS) and trade remedies. The US, on the other hand, received concessions that will have an immediate effect, such as easing import restrictions on automobiles and improving the pricing system for new drugs.

 

South Korea is the first country exporting steel to the US to secure a steel import quota (70%, or 2.68 million tons, of average yearly exports between 2015 and 2017). While accepting some of the US’s demands about American automobiles and pharmaceuticals, South Korea basically managed to arrange the first deal on steel. But a senior official from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy said, “We initially wanted to secure a tariff-rate quota that would give us a steel quota and allow us to export the volume above that the quota to the American market with a tariff of 25%, but that didn’t work out.” The volume of steel exports will fall to 70% of the volume of previous years, and no more exports will be allowed after the quota has been reached. “This resolved the instability and the unpredictability faced by exporting companies,” Kim said when asked about the swift settlement of the steel issue.

 

One view is that the pros and cons of the steel import quota, which is limited to 70% of the average imports over the past three years, must be compared with the alternative scenario in which the tariffs take effect.“The South Korean steel industry preferred the quotas to the tariffs. If the countries exempted from the tariffs and the exempted categories increase in the future, President Trump is likely to raise the tariffs higher than 25% in order to achieve his import reduction goals. In that situation, we would have been forced to quickly get off the list of countries facing thethe tariffs. We can only export 70% of the previous volume, but if the price of steel in the US rises because of the imposition of tariffs, the value of South Korean steel makers’ exports might actually increase,” a spokesperson for the Ministry said.

 

The decision to relax environmental and safety standards for automobiles that the US has repeatedly described as non-tariff barriers to trade came as no surprise. South Korea agreed to increase the number of American automobiles that can be imported even if they do not satisfy South Korean safety standards (about the color of turn signals, for example) as long as they satisfy American standards from the current level of 25,000 vehicles per company to 50,000 vehicles.“While we increased the number to 50,000, the actual number of vehicles imported each year by the US’s three big automakers is below 10,000, so [50,000] has no effect on the actual import volume,” Kim said. But others argue that South Korea gave major concessions on automobiles in order to reach an agreement on steel. When calculating South Korea’s costs, it is also necessary to include the government’s and various industries’ sharp increase in imports of American products and their expansion of investment in the US, which were aimed at highlighting the FTA’s benefits.

 

20 year extension on tariffs for Korean pickup trucks

 

Furthermore, the timeframe for repealing the 25% tariff on Korean pickup trucks was extended by 20 years, from 10 years after the KORUS FTA took effect (that is, 2021) until 2041. “At the moment, basically no pickup trucks are being exported to the US,” Kim noted.But in Kim’s book Talking about the KORUS-FTA, when he played up the importance of ending the tariff on pickups. “We aren’t currently manufacturing pickup trucks, but we will be in the future. The important thing is that [the US’s] high tariff of 25% on pickup trucks must be lowered so that we can attract investment,” he wrote. In effect, the extension of the timeframe greatly reduces the likelihood of South Korean companies breaking into the growing US pickup truck market.

 

Another major victory for the US is the agreement to hold additional negotiations to revise South Korea’s pharmaceutical pricing system for innovative medicine from around the world. American pharmaceutical firms have repeatedly complained that the price of medicine is set too low by South Korea’s national health insurance.

 

Among South Korea’s gains, one of the more notable is the improvement of the system for settling investor-state disputes. The two sides agreed to include in the revised agreement a provision to prevent investors who have invested capital in the other country from filing frivolous disputes and to ensure that the two governments’ due sovereignty over policy is not infringed.

 

There will also be the addition of a section to ensure procedural transparency, such as releasing documents from local anti-dumping investigations, when either side initiates trade remedies (that is, import restrictions). This measure is designed to provide a way of dodging or blunting trade pressure from the US. But Kim said, “The results of the negotiations do not allow us to say categorically that the US trade risk has markedly decreased, and trade pressure is likely to continue for the rest of Trump’s time in office.”

 

The specifics of the revisions of the ISDS and trade remedy systems will be made public when the revised agreement is officially signed, following additional deliberations with the US.

By Cho Kye-wan, staff reporter

The 30th Anniversary of APH International Symposium

APH symposium

 

The Korean Association of Physicians for Humanism announced that they will be holding international Symposium for their 30th Anniversary. The symposium focuses on the inequalities of health inequalities and the role of physicians in the era of inequality and invites doctors in action from Japan, the United Kingdom, and the Philippines to share their experiences.

In the second part of the lecture, Michael Marmot, the renowned researcher on health inequality, and former president of the World Physicians Association will give a lecture on the social determinants of health.

The event will be held in Sejong Center, 21th November.

Global institutions call South Korea a “climate villain”(hankyoreh)

#climate_change #Korea #ICCA #climate_vilain

Support for coal-fired power plants and abandonment of emission reduction targets cited as reasons for low assessment

South Korea has been named a leading “climate villain” for 2016 by institutions researching a response to global climate change.“Climate villains” is a term referring to countries that have been most irresponsible and negligent about responding to climate change.The Institute for Climate Change Action (ICCA), headed by Ahn Byeong-ok, announced on Nov. 6 that South Korea had been named alongside Saudi Arabia, Australia, and New Zealand as one of the world‘s four biggest climate villains on Nov. 4 by the climate change online news outlet Climate Home based on analytical findings from Climate Action Tracker (CAT). CAT is a consortium of independent research institutions jointly founded in 2009 by the three international climate change research agencies Climate Analytics, Ecofys, and NewClimate Institute. Every year, it tracks reduction activities in 32 major countries responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and publishes analytical findings.Reasons given for South Korea’s inclusion as a climate villain included the steep rate of increase in its per capita greenhouse gas emissions, its financial support for coal-fired power plant exports, and its abandonment of greenhouse gas reduction targets for 2020.“This isn’t the first time South Korea’s climate change response capabilities have been rated among the world‘s lowest,” said ICCA. “The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) for 2016 published on Dec. 8 of last year by the private institute German Watch and CAN Europe showed it ranking 54th among the 58 countries surveyed. It had fallen 23 spots in just five years, solidifying its image in the international community as a ’rogue climate state.‘”It’s an image that “is very likely to hurt national prestige and bring about monitoring and controls by the international community that are going to create difficulties in terms of foreign affairs and the economy,” ICCA added.“To overcome this situation and respond to the new climate regime, we‘re going to need to return climate change policy to its rightful place after all the backsliding under the Park Geun-hye administration,” it said.By Kim Jeong-soo, senior staff writer

 

 

 

Article from http://bit.ly/2fhZIns